But then came Charlottesville, and the movement was knocked back on its heels.

Napoleon sold Louisiana (New France) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.

Thereafter, the city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French, Creoles and Africans. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations.

During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River.

Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez successfully launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779.

The 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites; 3,102 free persons of African descent; and 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population.

The city became 63 percent black, a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent.

New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, and occupies both sides of the Mississippi River.

The heart of the city and its French Quarter is on the river's north side.

The armies had not learned of the Treaty of Ghent that had been signed on December 24, 1814 (however, the treaty did not call for cessation of hostilities until after both governments had ratified it. As a port, New Orleans played a major role during the antebellum era in the Atlantic slave trade.