/ National Technical University of Athens, Greece ..................................................................................1033 Falsetti, Carla / Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy ........................................................................................6 Feng, Xiuzhen / Beijing University of Technology, China ................................................................................402, 419 Ferrucci, Filomena / Università di Salerno, Italy ............................................................................................304, 516 Finegan, Andrew / Charles Darwin University, Australia .......................................................................................461 Fisser, Petra / University of Twente, The Netherlands ..............................................................................................482 Foglia, Pierfrancesco / Università di Pisa, Italy ......................................................................................................606 Fortino, Giancarlo / DEIS – Università della Calabria, Italy .................................................................................677 Frisser, Petra / University of Twente, The Netherlands .............................................................................................482 Fröschle, Norbert / Fraunhofer-Institute, Germany ................................................................................................212 Fu, Xin / The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA ...........................................................................

/ Digital Enterprise Research Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland ...........875 Buck, Sarah / YBP Library Services, USA ...............................................................................................................653 Burgess, Stephen / Victoria University, Australia ....................................................................................178, 431, 979 Cader, Yoosuf / Zayed University, UAE ......................................................................................................................89 Calero, Coral / University of Castilla – La Mancha, Spain .....................................................................................747 Cannataro, Mario / Università “Magna Græcia” di Catanzaro, Italy ..............................................................82, 615 Cao, Sanxing / Communication University of China, China ......................................................................................70 Carbone, Daniel / Victoria University, Australia ...............................................................................................65, 431 Caro, Angélica / Universidad del Bio Bio, Chile ......................................................................................................747 Cerone, Pietro / Victoria University, Australia .........................................................................................................940 Chalekian, Paul / University of Nevada, USA ..........................................................................................................968 Chan, Tom S.

/ Southern NH University, USA ..........................................................................................................172 Chang, Elizabeth / Curtin University of Technology, Australia ...............................................................................197 Chatterjea, Kalyani / Nanyang Technological University, Singapore .....................................................................547 Chaves, Fernando / Fraunhofer IITB, Germany ....................................................................................................1151 Chen, Yu / Beijing Jiaotong University, China .........................................................................................................805 Chern Lim, Chee / University of Newcastle, Australia ............................................................................................275 Cider, Rod / Madonna University, USA ....................................................................................................................684 Corbitt, Brian / RMIT University, Australia ............................................................................................................831 Costagliola, Gennaro / Università di Salerno, Italy .................................................................................................516 Costopoulou, Constantina / Informatics Laboratory, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece ..........................571 Craig, Ron / Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada .....................................................................................................934 Crowther, Paul / Sheffield Hallam University, UK ...................................................................................................826 Dai, Wei / Victoria University, Australia ...........................................................................................................140, 887 Dalmaris, Peter / Futureshock Research, Australia .................................................................................................801 Davey, Bill / RMIT University, Australia ..................................................................................................................689 Dawson, Ray / Loughborough University, UK .........................................................................................................223 de Amescua, Antonio / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain ............................................................1011 de Medeiros Jr., Alberto / University of São Paulo, Brazil and Faculdade Taboão da Serra, Brazil ....................476 De Giovanni, Loredana / Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy .........................................................................6 Dessì, Nicoletta / Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Italy .......................................................................................413 di Martino, Sergio / Università di Salerno, Italy .....................................................................................................304 Dillon, Tharam S.

/ University of Colorado, USA ...................................................................................................162 Fung, Benjamin C. / Simon Fraser University, Canada ....................................................................................842 Galitsky, Boris / University of London, UK ..............................................................................................................855 Gallucci, Lorenzo / Exeura S.r.

L, Italy .....................................................................................................................615 Gamboa, Ruben / University of Wyoming, USA .......................................................................................................947 Gao, Yuan / Ramapo College of New Jersey, USA .........................................................................................337, 1050 García Guzmán, Javier / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain .........................................................1011 Gardner, William / University of Technology, Sydney, Australia .............................................................................197 Garlaschelli, Luca / Università di Bologna, Italy ....................................................................................................538 Gebhart, Greg / Lowanna College, Australia ..........................................................................................................123 Geiger, Werner / Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut für Angewandte Informatik, Germany .............................20 Gerst, Martina / The University of Edinburgh, Scotland .........................................................................................992 Gordon, Steven / Babson College, USA ...................................................................................................................449 Gou, Juan Qiong / Beijing Jiaotong University, China ............................................................................................805 Gowda, Girish / Nanyang Technological University, Singapore ..............................................................................204 Grammenos, D.

/ Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH), Greece ......................................................................................................................................782 Gravino, Carmine / Università di Salerno, Italy .....................................................................................................304 Grazia Fugini, Maria / Politecnico di Milano, Italy ................................................................................................413 Hädrich, Thomas / Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany ........................................................217 Handzic, Meliha / Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Sarajevo, Bosnia, and Herzegovina ....................321 Hanke, Henrik / University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany .......................................................................................290 Harzallah, Mounira / Laboratoire d’informatique de Nantes, France ....................................................................788 Hasan, Helen / University of Wollongong, Australia ..........................................................................................26, 166 Hassall, Kim / Melbourne University, Australia ...............................................................................................442, 743 Hautala, Jouni / Turku Polytechnic, Finland .......................................................................................................1, 316 Hing Yu, Man / University of Newcastle, Australia .................................................................................................275 Ho Hur, Joon / IBM Business Consulting Services, Australia ..................................................................................321 Hoe-Lian Goh, Dion / Nanyang Technological University, Singapore ....................................................................547 Holland, Ilona E.

/ Harvard University, USA ...........................................................................................................397 Holmes, Karyn / Louisiana State Unjversity, USA ...................................................................................................814 Hung Chang, Chew / Nanyang Technological University, Singapore .....................................................................547 Hunter, M.

All work contributed to this encyclopedia set is new, previously-unpublished material.

E53 2007 025.0403--dc22 2007007262 British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.

/ Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa .....................................384 Mayer, Christopher B.

/ Air Force Institute of Technology, USA ............................................................................532 Mayer-Föll, Roland / Umweltministerium Baden-Württemberg, Germany ...............................................................20 Mc Carthy, Cavan / Louisiana State University, USA ..............................................................................................724 Mc Leod, Pauline / Queensberry Information Technologies Pty Ltd, Australia .....................................................1157 Medina-Domínguez, Fuensanta / Carlos III Technical University of Madrid, Spain ...........................................1011 Miao, Yuan / Victoria University, Australia ..............................................................................................................940 Michael, Ian / Zayed University, UAE ..............................................................................................................364, 811 Miguélez Rico, Mónica / University of Coruña, Spain ..........................................................................................1144 Millham, Richard C.

Encyclopedia of Portal Technologies and Applications Arthur Tatnall Victoria University, Australia Volume I A-L INFORMATION SCIENCE REFERENCE Hershey • New York Acquisitions Editor: Development Editor: Senior Managing Editor: Managing Editor: Assistant Managing Editor: Copy Editors: Typesetter: Cover Design: Printed at: Kristin Klinger Kristin Roth Jennifer Neidig Sara Reed Diane Huskinson Lanette Ehrhardt, April Schmidt, Katie Smalley, Angela Thor, and Larissa Vinci Diane Huskinson and Laurie Ridge Lisa Tosheff Yurchak Printing Inc. / Danish University of Education, Denmark ............................................................................1166 Antona, M.