Beginning with the Crimean War (1854–56), telegraphic communication became an indispensable tool of command, intelligence, and operational coordination, particularly in controlling rail…

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Where climatic conditions were favourable this instrument found much use, notably by the British army in India and the U. The invention of the telephone in 1876 was not followed immediately by its adoption and adaptation for military use. Army in the Spanish-American War, by the British in the South African (Boer) War, and by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War.

This was probably due to the fact that the compelling stimulation of war was not present and to the fact that the development of long-distance telephone communication was not achieved for many years. This military use was not extensive, and it made little material contribution to the development of voice telephony.

Early signaling between naval vessels was by prearranged messages transmitted by flags, lights, or the movement of a sail.

Codes were developed in the 16th century that were based upon the number and position of signal flags or lights or on the number of cannon shots.

In the 17th century the British admiral Sir William Penn and others developed regular codes for naval communication; and toward the close of the 18th century, Admiral Richard Kempenfelt developed a plan of flag signaling similar to that now in use. In his successful demonstration of electric communication between Washington, D.

Later Sir Home Popham increased the effectiveness of ship-to-ship communication by improved methods of flag signaling.telegraph by Samuel F. C., and Baltimore in 1844, he provided a completely new means of rapid signal communication.Another development for light signaling placed a movable shutter, controlled by a key, in front of a strong light.An operator, opening and closing the shutter, could produce short and long flashes to spell out messages in Morse code.Soon afterward the British organized their first field telegraph trains in the Royal Engineers.Another instrument was added to the techniques for visual signaling through the development of the heliograph.In addition to its employment in spanning long distances under the civilian-manned military telegraph organization, mobile field service was provided in the Union army by wagon trains equipped with insulated wire and lightweight poles for the rapid laying of telegraph lines.