The wider use of silver as the standard of value demanded more flexible payment terms.A man hiring a servant in the lunar month of Kislimu for a year knew that the engagement would end at the return of the same month, without counting days or periods of office between two dates.

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The Seleucids and, afterward, the Parthian rulers of Iran maintained the Babylonian calendar.

The fiscal administration in northern Iran, from the 1st century Zoroastrian month and day names in documents in Pahlavi (the Iranian language of Sāsānian Persia).

As late as about 1800 Babylonia a month could have several names, derived from festivals, from tasks (e.g., sheepshearing) usually performed in the given month, and so on, according to local needs.

On the other hand, as early as the 27th century , the Sumerians had used artificial time units in referring to the tenure of some high official—e.g., on N-day of the turn of office of PN, governor.

At the city of Mari about 1800 the Babylonian empire standardized the year by adopting the lunar calendar of the Sumerian sacred city of Nippur.

The power and the cultural prestige of Babylon assured the success of the lunar year, which began on Nisanu 1, in the spring.In Mesopotamia the solar year was divided into two seasons, the “summer,” which included the barley harvest in the second half of May or in the beginning of June, and the “winter,” which roughly corresponded to today’s fall–winter.Three seasons (Assyria) and four seasons (Anatolia) were counted in northerly countries, but in Mesopotamia the bipartition of the year seemed natural.The lunar year probably owed its success to economic progress.A barley loan could be measured out to the lender at the next year’s threshing floor.The influence of the Babylonian calendar was seen in many continued customs and usages of its neighbour and vassal states long after the Babylonian empire had been succeeded by others.